The abacus, also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia. Abaci are often constructed as a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires, but originally they were beans or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. In abacus, there are numerous different methods to perform a certain type of calculation, like addition and multiplication, or even more complex ones, such as calculating square roots.

Abaci come in different designs. Some designs, like the bead frame consisting of beads divided into tens, are used mainly to teach arithmetic, although they remain popular in the post-Soviet states as a tool. Many use calculators and computers instead of abaci to calculate, abaci still remain in common use in some countries. Some people who are unable to use a calculator because of visual impairment may use an abacus.

Around the world, abaci have been used in pre-schools and elementary schools as an aid in teaching the numeral system and arithmetic. The wire frame may be used either with positional notation like other abaci  or each bead may represent one unit. The red-and-white abacus is used in contemporary primary schools for a wide range of number-related lessons.


Vedic Mathematics is a book with a list of mental calculation techniques claimed to be based on the Vedas. Vedic Mathematics involves logic and understanding the fundamental concepts. One can do calculations much faster than done by using the conventional method that is taught in schools. Vedic maths method should be developed or accepted that provides basic clarity so that overall learning can be improved. 

Vedic Mathematics is a book written by the Indian monk Swami Bharati Krishna Tirtha and first published in 1965. It contains a list of mental calculation techniques claimed to be based on the Vedas. The mental calculation system mentioned in the book is also known by the same name or as "Vedic Maths" or more properly, "Vedic Max". Vedic maths is very effective and at the same time it is easy to learn. Students develop problem solving ability and it also leads to the development of creative intelligence.